This study focused on women of child-bearing age who are being treated for epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Taking folic acid during the pre-conceptual period has been found to decrease the risk for congenital malformations in babies born to women with epilepsy who take AEDs. The purpose of this study was to determine if annual counseling about contraception and pregnancy in a treatment setting for women with epilepsy is associated with increased recommendations or prescriptions for folic acid.
This was a retrospective cohort study that collected the data by abstracting medical records from the subjects. 77 women of childbearing age were included in this study who had two or more visits for epilepsy at a neurology clinic. The assessment included a review of documentation from the first three visits for epilepsy within a 24-month follow-up window. The women in this study were placed into 2 groups based on the type of counseling they received about pregnancy and contraception in relation to their epilepsy treatment: one group received something called DFCW (N=28) while the other group did not receive DFCW (N=49). DFCW was defined as the health care provider perfectly adhering to annual counseling about the impact of epilepsy treatment on contraception or pregnancy during their sessions with the patients. A recommendation from the provider that the patient take over-the-counter (OTC) folic acid or a prescription for folic acid was independently abstracted from the chart at each visit.
The group of subjects who received DFCW and the group who did not receive DFCW had no significant differences in respect to age, disease duration, baseline history of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), presence of concurrent psychiatric disease, epileptologist involvement, number of AEDs prescribed, types of seizures experienced, and etiology. The results were that 71.4% of subjects (20 women) in the DFCW group and 85.7% of subjects (42 women) in the non-DFCW group were NOT recommended or prescribed folic acid by their health care provider. These results show that providers are missing a big area of counseling for their female patients with epilepsy who are of child-bearing age. Even though many of the providers counsel their female epilepsy patients about how epilepsy treatment may affect contraception and pregnancy, they often times do not mention or actively recommend their patients to take folic acid if they are thinking about trying to conceive.
I think the results of this study are interesting and very eye-opening. It is concerning to me that many health care providers are not mentioning the benefits of taking folic acid to their female epilepsy patients of child-bearing age because previous studies have proved that folic acid can prevent congenital malformations in babies born to women with epilepsy who took AEDs during their pregnancies. I am wondering if this finding about folic acid is relatively new in the treatment of women with epilepsy and that many providers, especially those who have been practicing for many years, are simply not aware of this finding. Whatever the reason is, I hope this study has been reviewed in the world of epilepsy treatment and that more providers start recommending the use of folic acid in their female epilepsy patients of child-bearing age in order to prevent more congenital malfunctions from the use of AEDs during pregnancy from occurring.
My question posed to colleagues: How can pharmacists play a role in making female epilepsy patients of child-bearing age taking antiepileptic drugs aware of the fact that taking folic acid could decrease the risk for their children having congenital malfunctions?